Unixbhaskar's Blog

Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Fetch mail from Gmail through Mutt

Mutt  is a wonderful mail client ,which is commandline based. I have been using it for quite some time now.In this article I will show you how you can get mail from your gmail account.

If you don't have it then please get it from the specific OS repository or the link provided at the begining of this article.

I am sitting on Gentoo and I got it like below:

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_09:46:16_Wed Dec 15:~> sudo emerge -av mutt

These are the packages that would be merged, in order:

Calculating dependencies... done!
[ebuild R ] mail-client/mutt-1.5.20-r18 USE="berkdb crypt gdbm nls ssl -debug -doc* -gnutls* -gpg* -idn -imap* -mbox* -nntp -pop* -qdbm -sasl* -sidebar -smime* -smtp* -tokyocabinet" 0 kB

Total: 1 package (1 reinstall), Size of downloads: 0 kB

Would you like to merge these packages? [Yes/No]

So I already have it in my system so there is no point getting it again.Let me check out when I got this;

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_09:49:46_Wed Dec 15:~> sudo genlop -t mutt
* mail-client/mutt

Wed Nov 24 11:16:02 2010 >>> mail-client/mutt-1.5.20-r18
merge time: 10 minutes and 53 seconds.

Anyway ,it deflates configuration files in /etc/mutt like below:

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_09:51:46_Wed Dec 15:/etc/mutt> ls
Muttrc Muttrc.dist mime.types mime.types.dist

Now What I do;read few article on the internet about gmail integration with mutt(which I will provide the link in the resource section at the bottom of this post).Now I have copied the Muttrc file to my home dir and make adjustment to that file.

My personal .Muttrc look like below:

1 # Some minimal Mutt settings, Gentoo-style. Since mutt was installed
2 # with USE=mbox, this file doesn't have any changes from the default
3 # mutt settings, making it very minimal indeed...
4 #
5 # Please don't add settings to this file to change other user
6 # preferences (such as colors), since those can be hard for a user to
7 # undo if their preference doesn't match yours! For example, it is
8 # *impossible* currently in mutt to remove color settings from objects
9 # other than the index.
10 #
12 set imap_user=""
13 set imap_pass=""
14 set pager_context=1
15 set pager_index_lines=6 #show a mini-index in pager
16 set menu_scroll
17 set pgp_verify_sig=no #dont show pgp in pager
18 set status_on_top #put status line at top
19 set sort=threads #sort by message threads in index
20 #
21 set status_format=" %r %b %f %n Del %d Msgs %m %l %> (%P)"
22 set pager_format="%-10.10i %[!%a %b %d %R]"
23 set date_format="!%H:%M %a %d %b "
24 set index_format="%4C %Z %[%b%d] %-15.15F %s"
25 set folder_format="%2C %t %8s %d %N %f"
26 #
27 # #set sendmail="/usr/bin/nbsmtp -d -h -f"
28 #
29 set from="" #set to your from address
30 set realname="Bhaskar Chowdhury"
31 #
32 # set record="$home/sent" #sent mail is saved here
33 set delete=yes #delete without prompting
34 set include=yes #quote msg in reply
35 set fast_reply=yes #no prompting on reply
36 set beep=no #no noise
37 set markers=no #no + on wrapped lines
38 set confirmappend=no #no prompt for save to =keep
39 set to_chars=" +TCF" #no L for mail_list
40 #
41 set folder = "imaps://"
42 set spoolfile = "+INBOX"
43 set postponed ="+[Gmail]/Drafts"
45 set header_cache =~/.mutt/cache/headers
46 set message_cachedir =~/.mutt/cache/bodies
47 #mailboxes =inbox
48 # mailboxes =gentoo-dev
49 # mailboxes =gentoo-announce
50 # mailboxes =gentoo
51 # mailboxes =freshmeat
52 # mailboxes =duplicates
53 # mailboxes =default
54 # mailboxes =friends
55 # mailboxes =junk
56 # mailboxes =spam
57 # mailboxes =keep
58 #
59 set smtp_url = "smtp://"
60 set smtp_pass = ""
61 save-hook .* =keep #default mbox to (s)ave mail is =keep
62 # subscribe gentoo-user gentoo-dev #subscribed to these lists
63 #
64 # bind pager h display-toggle-weed #toggle headers with h key
65 #
66 # # simulate the old url menu
67 macro index \cb |urlview\n 'call urlview to extract URLs out of a message'
68 macro pager \cb |urlview\n 'call urlview to extract URLs out of a message'
69 #
70 # #run fetchmail by hitting key of G
71 macro index G "!fetchmail -a -m 'procmail -d %T'\r"
72 macro pager G "!fetchmail -a -m 'procmail -d %T'\r"
73 #
74 # #use to edit .muttrc and then source restart necessary
75 # macro generic ,sm ":source $HOME/.muttrc\r"
76 # macro generic \cj "!rxvt -bg wheat -e joe $HOME/.muttrc\r"
77 #
78 # # default list of header fields to weed out when displaying mail
79 # #ignore them all and then unignore what you want to see
80 # ignore *
81 unignore Date To From: Subject X-Mailer Organization User-Agent
82 hdr_order Date From To Subject X-Mailer User-Agent Organization
83 #
84 # ##your Mutt has to have some colors
85 # ##these are for four levels of quoted text
86 # ##they override the system settings in /etc/mutt/Muttrc
87 #
88 # #color quoted green default
89 color quoted1 magenta blue
90 # #color quoted2 yellow default
91 # #color quoted3 red default
92 # #color signature cyan cyan
93 #
94 #
95 # #this color setup is copied from /etc/mutt/Muttrc.color
96 # #comment it out if you want the default colors in /etc/mutt/Muttrc
97 # # Je vois la vie en rose :-)
98 color hdrdefault brightcyan blue
99 color header brightwhite blue "^from:"
100 color header brightwhite blue "^subject:"
101 #
102 color quoted brightgreen blue
103 color signature brightwhite blue
104 #
105 color indicator blue green
106 #
107 color error red black
108 mono error bold
109 color status black cyan
110 mono status bold
111 color tree yellow blue
112 #
113 color tilde brightmagenta blue
114 color body brightwhite blue "[-a-z_0-9.]+@[-a-z_0-9.]+"
115 mono body bold "[-a-z_0-9.]+@[-a-z_0-9.]+"
116 color body brightyellow black "^Good signature"
117 mono body bold "^Good signature"
118 color body brightwhite red "^Bad signature from.*"
119 mono body bold "^Bad signature from.*"
120 color normal white blue
121 color message green black
122 color attachment brightgreen blue
123 #
124 # # End of file...but it can go on and on and on....:)
125 #

So the next job is to invoke mutt from the commandline like below:


and here is the outcome of's connecting to gmail..

Now look at the bottom of the picture it fetching the header of those messages(it doesn't download the whole message).Only when you select the message for viewing then only mutt download the whole message.Once it get the headers it shows off the inbox like below:

Once the the headers are fetched it display the mail boxes you have with Gmail.Then you need to choose the proper box to show off those mails reside in it.Now select the any inbox and press enter then:

Anyway you can also integrate GnuPG with it for encryption and signing.

Hope this will help.







Friday, November 19, 2010

NetSurf - A graphical-browser for emergency browsing

In this post I will investigate a commandline graphical browser(run without X) which I was unaware of till two days back.I am pretty much well versed with lynx and elinks. . The new found(mentioned the source in the resource section at the bottom of the post) one called netsurf .I have tried to install it from the source available on Fedora 12 ,but failed to do so due to lack of patience.

Now I am sitting on Debian Lenny as it in the repository so it;s really make easy to install and use it.So I get it like below:

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_06:00:11_Fri Nov 19:~> sudo aptitude install netsurf
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
Reading extended state information
Initializing package states... Done
Reading task descriptions... Done
The following NEW packages will be installed:
0 packages upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 411kB of archives. After unpacking 1217kB will be used.
Writing extended state information... Done
Get:1 stable/main netsurf 1.2-1 [411kB]
Fetched 411kB in 1min52s (3641B/s)
Selecting previously deselected package netsurf.
(Reading database ... 112830 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking netsurf (from .../netsurf_1.2-1_i386.deb) ...
Processing triggers for menu ...
Processing triggers for man-db ...
Setting up netsurf (1.2-1) ...
Processing triggers for menu ...
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
Reading extended state information
Initializing package states... Done
Writing extended state information... Done
Reading task descriptions... Done

Once it is installed it just a cakewalk.I invoked it like below:

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_06:07:41_Fri Nov 19:~> /usr/bin/netsurf

(netsurf:5351): libglade-WARNING **: could not find signal handler 'on_menupopup_navigate_activate'.

(netsurf:5351): Gtk-WARNING **: gtk_menu_attach_to_widget(): menu already attached to GtkMenuItem

(netsurf:5351): Gtk-WARNING **: gtk_menu_attach_to_widget(): menu already attached to GtkMenuItem

(netsurf:5351): Gtk-WARNING **: gtk_menu_attach_to_widget(): menu already attached to GtkMenuItem

(netsurf:5351): Gtk-WARNING **: gtk_menu_attach_to_widget(): menu already attached to GtkMenuItem

(netsurf:5351): Gtk-WARNING **: gtk_menu_attach_to_widget(): menu already attached to GtkMenuItem

(netsurf:5351): Gtk-WARNING **: gtk_menu_attach_to_widget(): menu already attached to GtkMenuItem

(netsurf:5351): Gtk-WARNING **: gtk_menu_attach_to_widget(): menu already attached to GtkMenuItem

(netsurf:5351): Gtk-WARNING **: gtk_menu_attach_to_widget(): menu already attached to GtkMenuItem

(netsurf:5351): Gtk-WARNING **: gtk_menu_attach_to_widget(): menu already attached to GtkMenuItem

(netsurf:5351): Gtk-WARNING **: gtk_menu_attach_to_widget(): menu already attached to GtkMenuItem

Now the gtk-thing pop up like below;

Now few noticeable thing about it that it doesn't support tab feature.And lot of normal plug-in might be missing.But in case of headless server it will be as useful as other cli-browser.Second it heavily depend on GTK, so you have to have it installed in the system to get it work.

Plus you need to check out the dependency when building from source from their web site to get it straight.



Hope this will help.


Wednesday, November 17, 2010

The mystery behind LUN(Logical Unit Number)

After being amazed and bewildered for sometime and listening to people talking so geeky about it ;I decided to unearth few intricacies about it.As we all know few parts of the world where people making simple thing complicated to others which benifit few blunt headed idiots to get cheap credit and save thier arse.

Oh! by the way forgot to mention that(those of you ignore the title)this is all about telling some intricacies about LUN(Logical Unit Number) .So without much ado lets dive into it.

Let me give you a clear cut definition I have come across so far is this "A LUN is a Logical Unit Number. It can be used to refer to an entire physical disk, or a subset of a larger physical disk or disk volume. The physical disk or disk volume could be an entire single disk drive, a partition (subset) of a single disk drive, or disk volume from a RAID controller comprising multiple disk drives aggregated together for larger capacity and redundancy. LUNs represent a logical abstraction or, if you prefer, virtualization layer between the physical disk device/volume and the applications."

So how can you detect the LUN?

So there are two common ways to detect it,one is through /proc filesystes check and second is create a initrd image with it so time of os boot it can be detected.

Take the first case by scanning the /proc filesystem check; we need to the following to get a sense of it or aware of it:

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_06:55:52_Wed Nov 17:~> sudo cat /proc/scsi/scsi
Attached devices:
Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: ATA Model: ST9160821AS Rev: 3.BH
Type: Direct-Access ANSI SCSI revision: 05
Host: scsi3 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: Optiarc Model: DVD RW AD-7560A Rev: DH10
Type: CD-ROM ANSI SCSI revision: 05

As you can see it from the out of that scan of /proc filesystem.Now the next one getting the LUN thing detected when the os boots.

Detect LUNs automatically at system boot

The second method of configuring LUNs for a Linux system with only LUN 0 configured involves setting the parameter for the SCSI mid-layer driver that controls how many LUNs are scanned during a SCSI bus scan. The following procedure works for both 2.4 and 2.6 kernels, but it assumes the SCSI mid-layer driver is compiled as a scsi_mod module that is loaded automatically at system boot time. For Linux 2.4 kernels, to set the maximum number of disk devices under Linux to properly detect all volumes, you need to set the max_scsi_luns option for the SCSI mid-layer driver. For example, if max_scsi_luns is set to 1 this limits SCSI bus scans to only LUN 0. This value should be set to the respective maximum number of disks the kernel can support, for example, 128 or 256. In Linux 2.6 kernels, the same procedure applies, except that the parameter has been renamed from max_scsi_luns to max_luns.

1. Edit the /etc/modules.conf file.
2. Add the following line:
* options scsi_mod max_scsi_luns= (where is the total number of luns to probe.
3. Save the file.
4. Run the mkinitrd command to rebuild the ram-disk associated with the current kernel. You can use the following figures examples of what mkinitrd command to run for your operating system. refers to the ‘uname –r’ output which displays the currently running kernel level, for example:. 2.4.21-292-smp.
For SUSE distributions, use the following command:

cd /boot
mkinitrd –k vmlinuz- -i initrd-

For Red Hat distributions, use the following command:

cd /boot
mkinitrd –v initrd-.img

5. Reboot the host.
6. Verify that the boot files are correctly configured for the newly created initrd image in the /boot/grub/menu.lst file.

The basics behind it somewhat is this LUNs are created as a basic part of the storage provisioning process using software tools that typically accompany the particular storage platform. However, there is not a 1-to-1 ratio between drives and LUNs. Many LUNs can easily be carved out of a single disk drive.

For example, a 500 GB drive can be partitioned into one 200 GB LUN and one 300 GB LUN, which would appear as two unique drives to the host server. Conversely, storage administrators can employ Logical Volume Manager software to combine multiple LUNs into a larger volume. Veritas Volume Manager from Symantec Corp. is one example of this software. In actual practice, disks are first gathered into a RAID group for larger capacity and redundancy (e.g., RAID-50), and then LUNs are carved from that RAID group.

LUNs are often referred to as logical "volumes," reflecting the traditional use of drive volume letters, such as volume C: or volume F: on your computer. But some experts warn against mixing the two terms, noting that the term "volume" is often used to denote the large volume created when multiple LUNs are combined with volume manager software. In this context, a volume may involve numerous LUNs and can confuse storage allocation.

Once created, LUNs can also be shared between multiple servers. For example, a LUN might be shared between an active and standby server. If the active server fails, the standby server can immediately take over. However, it can be catastrophic for multiple servers to access the same LUN simultaneously without a means of coordinating changed blocks to ensure data integrity. Cooordinating data changes requires clustering software, such as a clustered volume manager, a clustered file system, a clustered application or a network file system using NFS or CIFS.

LUN scaling and performance

LUNs are based on disks, so LUN performance and reliability will vary for the same reasons. For example, a LUN carved from a Fibre Channel 15K rpm disk will perform far better than a LUN of the same size taken from a 7,200 rpm SATA disk. This is also true of LUNs based on RAID arrays where the mirroring of a RAID-0 group may offer significantly different performance than the parity protection of a RAID-5 or RAID-6/dual parity (DP) group. Proper RAID group configuration will have a profound impact on LUN performance.

An organization may utilize hundreds or even thousands of LUNs, so the choice of storage resources has vast implications for a storage administrator. Not only is it necessary to supply an application with adequate capacity (in gigabytes), but the LUN must also be drawn from disk storage with suitable characteristics.

LUN management tools

Since an enterprise array may host more than 10,000 LUNs, software tools are vital for efficient LUN creation, manipulation and reporting. Such management tools are readily available; almost every storage vendor provides some type of management software to accompany products ranging from direct-attached storage (DAS) devices to enterprise arrays.

Administrators typically opt for vendor-specific or heterogeneous tools. A data center with one storage array or a single-vendor shop would do well with the indigenous LUN management tool that accompanied their storage system. Multivendor shops should at least consider heterogeneous tools that allow LUN management across all of the storage platforms.

A LUN management tool should also support the entire storage provisioning process. Features should include mapping to specific array ports and masking specific host bus adapters (HBA), along with comprehensive reporting. The LUN management tool should also be able to reclaim storage that is no longer needed. Although a few LUN management products support autonomous provisioning, some administrators have reservations about such automation.

SAN zoning and masking

LUNs are the basic vehicle for delivering storage, but provisioning SAN storage isn't just a matter of creating LUNs or volumes; the SAN fabric itself must be configured so that disks and their LUNs are matched to the appropriate servers. Proper configuration helps to manage storage traffic and maintain SAN security by preventing any server from accessing any LUN.

Zoning makes it possible for devices in a Fibre Channel network to see each other. By limiting the visibility of end devices, servers (hosts) can only see and access storage devices that are placed into the same zone. In more practical terms, zoning allows certain servers to see one or more ports on a disk array. Bandwidth, and thus minimum service levels, can be reserved by dedicating certain ports to a zone or isolate incompatible ports from one another.

Zoning is an important element of SAN security and high-availability SAN design. Zoning can typically be broken down into hard and soft zoning. With hard zoning, each device is assigned to a zone, and that assignment can never change. In soft zoning, the device assignments can be changed by the network administrator.

LUN masking adds granularity to this concept. Just because you zone a server and disk together doesn't mean that the server should be able to see all of the LUNs on that disk. Once the SAN is zoned, LUNs are masked so that each host server can only see specific LUNs.

Suppose that a disk has two LUNs: LUN_A and LUN_B. If we zoned two servers to that disk, both servers would see both LUNs. However, we can use LUN masking to allow one server to see only LUN_A and mask the other server to see only LUN_B. Port-based LUN masking is granular to the storage array port, so any disks on a given port will be accessible to any servers on that port. Server-based LUN masking is a bit more granular; a server will see only the LUNs assigned to it, regardless of the other disks or servers connected.

Adding/Removing a Logical Unit Through

The sg3_utils package provides the script, which can automatically update the logical unit configuration of the host as needed (after a device has been added to the system). The script can also perform an issue_lip on supported devices. For more information about how to use this script, refer to --help.
To install the sg3_utils package, run yum install sg3_utils.

Known Issues With

When using the script, take note of the following known issues:

In order for to work properly, LUN0 must be the first mapped logical unit. The can only detect the first mapped logical unit if it is LUN0. The will not be able to scan any other logical unit unless it detects the first mapped logical unit even if you use the --nooptscan option.

A race condition requires that be run twice if logical units are mapped for the first time. During the first scan, only adds LUN0; all other logical units are added in the second scan.

A bug in the script incorrectly executes the functionality for recognizing a change in logical unit size when the --remove option is used.

The script does not recognize ISCSI logical unit removals.




Hope this will help.


Friday, November 5, 2010

Let's deal with oddity : Remove filename with special char in them

Let's face it,everyone face some oddity sooner then later to deal with open system.I have had come across quite a lot over the decade and am going to share few in this article.

Sometime people forget the basic thing and make things complicated. Like when they create a simple file they put arcane character in the name and it will create havoc in later stage.For example if someone create a file with "--" or "#" or some other character in the filename.Say one has a filename like below:

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_18:35:12_Fri Nov 05:~> touch -- -hey

Now you cannot list it like below:

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_18:38:52_Fri Nov 05:~> ls -l -hey
ls: invalid option -- 'e'
Try `ls --help' for more information.


delete it like below;

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_18:39:00_Fri Nov 05:~> rm -f -hey
rm: invalid option -- 'h'
Try `rm ./-hey' to remove the file `-hey'.
Try `rm --help' for more information.

Now this is hindering you to get rid of it or even worse to take backup from the system if that file included in the backup list.So how to get rid of it we all know that file store all the information in get it..

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_18:42:19_Fri Nov 05:~> ls -i | grep hey
655109 -hey

Now you can get rid of that file by inode like below:

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_18:50:14_Fri Nov 05:~> find . -inum 655109 -exec rm -i {} \;
rm: remove regular empty file `./-hey'? Y

Hope this will help .


Sunday, October 31, 2010

Rsync : A handy tool to sync with

In this article I am going to show you some implication of rsync tool.It is a tool often used by the web masters and system administrator to sync with various number of host across the network.Now what is the utility of having rsync under your armory? The advantage is quite useful.Here are few:

** It can sync filesystem across the network

** It can only sync the updated version the filesystem then the whole tree.

** It is very useful to copy the entire web site ported to new host or hosts.

** Rsync can do a various job related to backup procedure.

support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions

** exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

** a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore

** can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

** does not require super-user privileges

** pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

** support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for mirroring)

Above stated advantages are name a few.Kindly look into the manual page of it.So,now I have four different partition and and I want to sync a particualr dir with all partiotn with a specific application running on all the OSes.

The idea is to get it sync; because I want the information to be indentical across all the partitions(same can be applied to different hosts too over the network!!).

How does it work?

You must set up one machine or another of a pair to be an "rsync server" by running rsync in a daemon mode ("rsync --daemon" at the commandline) and setting up a short, easy configuration file (/etc/rsyncd.conf). Below I'll detail a sample configuration file. The options are readily understood, few in number -- yet quite powerful.

Any number of machines with rsync installed may then synchronize to and/or from the machine running the rsync daemon. You can use this to make backups, mirror filesystems, distribute files or any number of similar operations. Through the use of the "rsync algorithm" which transfers only the diffs between files (similar to a patch file) and then compressing them -- you are left with a very efficient system.

For those of you new to secure shell ("ssh" for short), you should be using it! There's a very useful and quite thourough Getting Started with SSH document available. You may also want to visit the Secure Shell Web Site. Or, just hit the Master FTP Site in Finland and snag it for yourself. It provides a secure, encrypted "pipe" for your network traffic. You should be using it instead of telnet, rsh or rlogin and use the replacement "scp" command instead of "rcp."

Setting up a Server

You must set up a configuration file on the machine meant to be a server and run the rsync binary in daemon mode. Even your rsync client machines can run rsync in daemon mode for two-way transfers. You can do this automatically for each connection via the inet daemon or at the commandline in standalone mode to leave it running in the background for often repeated rsyncs. .Plus there is a CGI script that folks fire off frequently during the day for immediate updating of content. This is a lot of rsync calls! If you start off the rsync daemon through your inet daemon, then you incur much more overhead with each rsync call. You basically restart the rsync daemon for every connection your server machine gets! It's the same reasoning as starting Apache in standalone mode rather than through the inet daemon. It's quicker and more efficient to start rsync in standalone mode if you anticipate a lot of rsync traffic. Otherwise, for the occasional transfer follow the procedure to fire off rsync via the inet daemon. This way the rsync daemon, as small as it is, doesn't sit in memory if you only use it once a day or whatever. Your call.

Below is a sample rsync configuration file. It is placed in your /etc directory as rsyncd.conf.

motd file = /etc/rsyncd.motd
log file = /var/log/rsyncd.log
pid file = /var/run/
lock file = /var/run/rsync.lock

path = /rsync_files_here
comment = My Very Own Rsync Server
uid = nobody
gid = nobody
read only = no
list = yes
auth users = username
secrets file = /etc/rsyncd.scrt

Various options that you would modify right from the start are the areas in italics in the sample above. I'll start at the top, line by line, and go through what you should pay attention to. What the sample above does is setup a single "path" for rsync transfers to that machine.

Starting at the top are four lines specifying files and their paths for rsync running in daemon mode. The first is a "message of the day" (motd) file like you would use for an FTP server. This file's contents get displayed when clients connect to this machine. Use it as a welcome, warning or simply identification. The next line specifies a log file to send diagnostic and norml run-time messages to. The PID file contains the "process ID" (PID) number of the running rsync daemon. A lock file is used to ensure that things run smoothly. These options are global to the rsync daemon.

The next block of lines is specific to a "path" that rsync uses. The options contained therein have effect only within the block (they're local, not global options). Start with the "path" name. It's somewhat confusing that rsync uses the term "path" -- as it's not necessarily a full pathname. It serves as an "rsync area nickname" of sorts. It's a short, easy to remember (and type!) name that you assign to a try filesystem path with all the options you specify. Here are the things you need to set up first and foremost:

* path - this is the actual filesystem path to where the files are rsync'ed from and/or to.

* comment - a short, descriptive explanation of what and where the path points to for listings.

* auth users - you really should put this in to restrict access to only a pre-defined user that you specify in the following secrets file - does not have to be a valid system user.

* secrets file - the file containing plaintext key/value pairs of usernames and passwords.

One thing you should seriously consider is the "hosts allow" and "hosts deny" options for your path. Enter the IPs or hostnames that you wish to specifically allow or deny! If you don't do this, or at least use the "auth users" option, then basically that area of your filesystem is wide open to the world by anyone using rsync! Something I seriously think you should avoid...

Check the rsyncd.conf man page with "man rsyncd.conf" and read it very carefully where security options are concerned. You don't want just anyone to come in and rsync up an empty directory with the "--delete" option, now do you?

The other options are all explained in the man page for rsyncd.conf. Basically, the above options specify that the files are chmod'ed to uid/gid, the filesystem path is read/write and that the rsync path shows up in rsync listings. The rsync secrets file I keep in /etc/ along with the configuration and motd files, and I prefix them with "rsyncd." to keep them together.

For that reason I have mounted a partition which holds the updated version of the file and sync with others from that partition.

Say my Gentoo partition is updated and I want to update Arch,Fedora and Debian with I have mouted all of them in different designated dir under the / .

Here is how I can sync that perticular file :

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_06:55:11_Sun Oct 31:/srv/http/dokuwiki> sudo /usr/bin/rsync -avrP data/ /Fedora/var/www/html/dokuwiki/

I will update the output of it once it finished.With rsync the trailing slash (/) has a big role to play.It signifies that you want to copy all the contents of that dir instead of the dir.Without the trailing slash rsync will copy the entire directory.Now some explanation about the flags I have passed with the rsync. Here is the meaning of those;

a ------> It says that in the format of archive

v -------> verbose mode

r --------> recursive mode

P ---------> progress mode

It has many other useful options with deal with.Kindly look into the man pages for more details.But when you sync over the network you must use it over the ssh so the tunnel get secured during transfer.It has "-e" option which will allow you to pass an ssh option with it.



Hope this will help.


Thursday, October 14, 2010

DokuWiki : An opensource wiki to maintain information

In this article I will show you how you can install and use dokuwiki to keep your information in formatted manner.The biggest thing attract me that it uses flat file or plain text file to store information then backend database.So if you want to distribute the that file across different partition to get the same doc.Whereas in the corporate there should be separate dokuwiki server to maintain all the information.

Get the software:

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_16:24:53_Thu Oct 14:~/Documents> sudo yum install dokuwiki
[sudo] password for bhaskar:
Loaded plugins: presto, refresh-packagekit
google-chrome | 951 B 00:00
google-chrome/primary | 3.1 kB 00:00
google-chrome 5/5
openvz-kernel-rhel5 | 951 B 00:00
openvz-utils | 951 B 00:00
rpmfusion-free-updates | 2.8 kB 00:00
updates/metalink | 3.3 kB 00:00
updates | 4.7 kB 00:01
updates/primary_db | 5.0 MB 05:42
updates-source/metalink | 3.3 kB 00:00
updates-source | 3.3 kB 00:00
Setting up Install Process
Package dokuwiki-0-0.4.20091225.c.fc12.noarch already installed and latest version
Nothing to do

So it says I already have it and yes I had it long time back.Lets check out:

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_17:07:28_Thu Oct 14:~/Documents> sudo rpm -qi dokuwiki
[sudo] password for bhaskar:
Name : dokuwiki Relocations: (not relocatable)
Version : 0 Vendor: Fedora Project
Release : 0.4.20091225.c.fc12 Build Date: Tue 19 Jan 2010 04:23:45 PM IST
Install Date: Thu 23 Sep 2010 03:51:04 PM IST Build Host:
Group : Applications/Internet Source RPM: dokuwiki-0-0.4.20091225.c.fc12.src.rpm
Size : 6977076 License: GPLv2
Signature : RSA/8, Tue 19 Jan 2010 04:53:04 PM IST, Key ID 9d1cc34857bbccba
Packager : Fedora Project
Summary : Standards compliant simple to use wiki
Description :
DokuWiki is a standards compliant, simple to use Wiki, mainly aimed at creating
documentation of any kind. It has a simple but powerful syntax which makes sure
the datafiles remain readable outside the Wiki and eases the creation of
structured texts.

All data is stored in plain text files no database is required.

Lets find out the file that installed by this software:


.......output snipped for clarity

Hell lot of files get installed by the software.Next move on to installation of this software.We must have the top tree in the web space scope to get access through the browser.

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_17:20:58_Thu Oct 14:~/Documents> ls -al /var/www/html/dokuwiki/
total 44
drwxr-xr-x. 6 root root 4096 2010-09-23 18:08 .
drwxr-xr-x. 5 root root 4096 2010-09-24 18:15 ..
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 2010-09-23 15:50 bin
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 2010-09-23 18:10 conf
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 2258 2010-09-23 16:01 doku.php
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 11725 2010-01-17 16:05 feed.php
drwxr-xr-x. 5 root root 4096 2010-09-23 15:50 inc
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 185 2010-09-23 16:09 index.php
drwxr-xr-x. 9 root root 4096 2010-09-23 15:51 lib

Now next job is go to the browser and invoke


Now a bit of file permission issue which might raised in the time or after the installation.Here is some point stright out of the dokuwiki site:

  • Permissions for a file are dependent of the file's owner and group and the user who tries to access the file
  • There are permissions for read, write and execute
  • Each UNIX process runs with the permissions of an OS user and his groups
  • The web server is a UNIX process
  • PHP usually runs as part of the web server
  • DokuWiki will run with the permissions of the PHP processor
  • DokuWiki needs read, write and execute permissions for directories it needs to create files in
  • DokuWiki needs read and write permissions for files it needs to write to
  • DokuWiki needs read only permissions for files and directories it doesn't need to write to
For more details on the permission setting see here .

Now once you are up and running with proper setting of php(yes,dokuwiki depend on php and should integrated with a web server.In out case we use Apache)

But until you configure your web server properly you won't be able to get the proper thing about this software. So let me share the Apache config related to this software:

1 # dokuwiki
2 # Standards compliant simple to use wiki
3 # 0
4 #
5 Alias /dokuwiki /var/www/html/dokuwiki
7 Options +FollowSymLinks
8 Order Allow,Deny
9 Allow from ::1

12 Order Deny,Allow
13 Deny from all

16 Order Deny,Allow
17 Deny from all

20 ## no access to the fla directory
21 Order allow,deny
22 Deny from all

25 Order Deny,Allow
26 Deny from all


So name it as dokuwiki.conf and put it in the /etc/apache| httpd/conf.d/

Restart the Apache to and go to the browser to get the start page by visiting the url mentioned above.

The dokuwiki file structure under the /etc looks like below:

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_17:37:34_Thu Oct 14:/etc/dokuwiki> ls
acl.auth.php dokuwiki.php interwiki.conf local.php mime.conf scheme.conf users.auth.php words.aspell
acronyms.conf entities.conf license.php mediameta.php msg smileys.conf wordblock.conf

Here it looks like on my system as I have created many pages with documentation,

Dokuwiki :

Now it is blessed with ACL(Access Control List),so you can tighten the grip on web space file permission.

bhaskar@bhaskar-laptop_17:37:34_Thu Oct 14:/etc/dokuwiki> sudo getfacl /var/www/html/dokuwiki/
[sudo] password for bhaskar:
getfacl: Removing leading '/' from absolute path names
# file: var/www/html/dokuwiki/
# owner: root
# group: root

Now the files might have different permission for your case.

To create a page you have click on the start hyperlink and it will provide you an empty page. On that page you have to click on the "create page" button to start working on it.

Dokuwiki has it's own syntax to work with and is very easy to implement.Kindly glean over it's syntax page for details.

Hope this will give you a fair idea how it works.If possible I might update this page later time with more details.


Wednesday, October 6, 2010

Open Source Software Licenses

In this article we are going to talk about the open system/open source software licenses.As most of you are aware(if not please read and understand)how those licenses intend to do then apply them as you like.So lets meet those licenses that made an impact on open source development.Being an GNU/Linux consultant my one of the prime job to explain the licensing issue to my clients so they can understand what they adopt into their infrastructure.And as my second role as an GNU/Linux administrator I am very curious about the licensing factor to implements something into the production base.So what I will suggest please give yourself sometime and go through the below mentioned licenses to accustomed yourself better for deployment.

Before we start one must know that Linux kernel is abide with GPL v.2 ,means all the codes are released under this license.

Free Document License:

GNU Free Documentation License
Version 1.2, November 2002

Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.


This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a
world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below,
refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a
licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you
copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
under copyright law.

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
modifications and/or translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
(or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a
textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
that says that the Document is released under this License. If a
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allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero
Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant
Sections then there are none.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may
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A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
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or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
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Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
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include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
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processing tools are not generally available, and the
machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
processors for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
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A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose
title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
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section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.

The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
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no effect on the meaning of this License.


You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
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You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
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If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
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Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
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If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
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If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
a computer-network location from which the general network-using
public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.


You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
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and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
(which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
unless they release you from this requirement.
C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
Modified Version, as the publisher.
D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
adjacent to the other copyright notices.
F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add
to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
Version as stated in the previous sentence.
J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section.
You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
and/or dedications given therein.
L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section
may not be included in the Modified Version.
N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements"
or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
"History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
Entitled "Endorsements".


You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.


A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole


Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
the original English version of this License and the original versions
of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between
the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
"Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual


You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to
copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.


The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new
versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and
license notices just after the title page:

Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
Free Documentation License".

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,to permit their use in free software.

GPL a.k.a General Public License:

Version 3, 29 June 2007

Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. «»
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for
software and other kinds of works.

The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed
to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast,
the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to
share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free
software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the
GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to
any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to
your programs, too.

When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you
want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new
free programs, and that you know you can do these things.

To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you
these rights or asking you to surrender the rights. Therefore, you have
certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if
you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.

For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same
freedoms that you received. You must make sure that they, too, receive
or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they
know their rights.

Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps:
(1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License
giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it.

For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly explains
that there is no warranty for this free software. For both users' and
authors' sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as
changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to
authors of previous versions.

Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run
modified versions of the software inside them, although the manufacturer
can do so. This is fundamentally incompatible with the aim of
protecting users' freedom to change the software. The systematic
pattern of such abuse occurs in the area of products for individuals to
use, which is precisely where it is most unacceptable. Therefore, we
have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit the practice for those
products. If such problems arise substantially in other domains, we
stand ready to extend this provision to those domains in future versions
of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of users.

Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents.
States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of
software on general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to
avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could
make it effectively proprietary. To prevent this, the GPL assures that
patents cannot be used to render the program non-free.

The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.


0. Definitions.

"This License" refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.

"Copyright" also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of
works, such as semiconductor masks.

"The Program" refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this
License. Each licensee is addressed as "you". "Licensees" and
"recipients" may be individuals or organizations.

To "modify" a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work
in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an
exact copy. The resulting work is called a "modified version" of the
earlier work or a work "based on" the earlier work.

A "covered work" means either the unmodified Program or a work based
on the Program.

To "propagate" a work means to do anything with it that, without
permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for
infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a
computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying,
distribution (with or without modification), making available to the
public, and in some countries other activities as well.

To "convey" a work means any kind of propagation that enables other
parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through
a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying.

An interactive user interface displays "Appropriate Legal Notices"
to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible
feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2)
tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the
extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the
work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License. If
the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a
menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion.

1. Source Code.

The "source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work
for making modifications to it. "Object code" means any non-source
form of a work.

A "Standard Interface" means an interface that either is an official
standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of
interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that
is widely used among developers working in that language.

The "System Libraries" of an executable work include anything, other
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The "Corresponding Source" for a work in object code form means all
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The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users
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The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that
same work.

2. Basic Permissions.

All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of
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You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not
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4. Conveying Verbatim Copies.

You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you
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keep intact all notices stating that this License and any
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b) The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is
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c) You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this
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d) If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display
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A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent
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6. Conveying Non-Source Forms.

You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms
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more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this
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A "User Product" is either (1) a "consumer product", which means any
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"Installation Information" for a User Product means any methods,
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If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or
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by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply
if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install
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The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a
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the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a
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Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided,
in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly
documented (and with an implementation available to the public in
source code form), and must require no special password or key for
unpacking, reading or copying.

7. Additional Terms.

"Additional permissions" are terms that supplement the terms of this
License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions.
Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall
be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent
that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions
apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately
under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by
this License without regard to the additional permissions.

When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option
remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of
it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own
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for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you
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that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms:

a) Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the
terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or

b) Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or
author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal
Notices displayed by works containing it; or

c) Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or
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All other non-permissive additional terms are considered "further
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governed by this License along with a term that is a further
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a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this
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of that license document, provided that the further restriction does
not survive such relicensing or conveying.

If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you
must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the
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where to find the applicable terms.

Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the
form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions;
the above requirements apply either way.

8. Termination.

You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly
provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or
modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under
this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third
paragraph of section 11).

However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and
finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright
holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means
prior to 60 days after the cessation.

Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that
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your receipt of the notice.

Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under
this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently
reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same
material under section 10.

9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or
run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work
occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission
to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However,
nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or
modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do
not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a
covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.

10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically
receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and
propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible
for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.

An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an
organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an
organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered
work results from an entity transaction, each party to that
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give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the
Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if
the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.

You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the
rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may
not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of
rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation
(including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that
any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for
sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.

11. Patents.

A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this
License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The
work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor version".

A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims
owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or
hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted
by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version,
but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a
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Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free
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In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express
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sue for patent infringement). To "grant" such a patent license to a
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If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license,
and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone
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publicly available network server or other readily accessible means,
then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so
available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the
patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner
consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent
license to downstream recipients. "Knowingly relying" means you have
actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the
covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work
in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
country that you have reason to believe are valid.

If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a
covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties
receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify
or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license
you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered
work and works based on it.

A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within
the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is
conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are
specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered
work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is
in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment
to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying
the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the
parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory
patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work
conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily
for and in connection with specific products or compilations that
contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement,
or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a
covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may
not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you
to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey
the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this
License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single
combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this
License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work,
but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License,
section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the
combination as such.

14. Revised Versions of this License.

The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General
Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the
option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered
version or of any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the
GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published
by the Free Software Foundation.

If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's
public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you
to choose that version for the Program.

Later license versions may give you additional or different
permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a
later version.

15. Disclaimer of Warranty.


16. Limitation of Liability.


17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates
an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the
Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a
copy of the Program in return for a fee.


How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

«one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.»
Copyright (C) «year» «name of author»

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program. If not, see «».

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short
notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

«program» Copyright (C) «year» «name of author»
This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program's commands
might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box".

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school,
if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary.
For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see

The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program
into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you
may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with
the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
Public License instead of this License. But first, please read

LPGL a.k.a Lesser General Public License:

Version 3, 29 June 2007

Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. «»
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

This version of the GNU Lesser General Public License incorporates
the terms and conditions of version 3 of the GNU General Public
License, supplemented by the additional permissions listed below.

0. Additional Definitions.

As used herein, "this License" refers to version 3 of the GNU Lesser
General Public License, and the "GNU GPL" refers to version 3 of the GNU
General Public License.

"The Library" refers to a covered work governed by this License,
other than an Application or a Combined Work as defined below.

An "Application" is any work that makes use of an interface provided
by the Library, but which is not otherwise based on the Library.
Defining a subclass of a class defined by the Library is deemed a mode
of using an interface provided by the Library.

A "Combined Work" is a work produced by combining or linking an
Application with the Library. The particular version of the Library
with which the Combined Work was made is also called the "Linked

The "Minimal Corresponding Source" for a Combined Work means the
Corresponding Source for the Combined Work, excluding any source code
for portions of the Combined Work that, considered in isolation, are
based on the Application, and not on the Linked Version.

The "Corresponding Application Code" for a Combined Work means the
object code and/or source code for the Application, including any data
and utility programs needed for reproducing the Combined Work from the
Application, but excluding the System Libraries of the Combined Work.

1. Exception to Section 3 of the GNU GPL.

You may convey a covered work under sections 3 and 4 of this License
without being bound by section 3 of the GNU GPL.

2. Conveying Modified Versions.

If you modify a copy of the Library, and, in your modifications, a
facility refers to a function or data to be supplied by an Application
that uses the facility (other than as an argument passed when the
facility is invoked), then you may convey a copy of the modified

a) under this License, provided that you make a good faith effort to
ensure that, in the event an Application does not supply the
function or data, the facility still operates, and performs
whatever part of its purpose remains meaningful, or

b) under the GNU GPL, with none of the additional permissions of
this License applicable to that copy.

3. Object Code Incorporating Material from Library Header Files.

The object code form of an Application may incorporate material from
a header file that is part of the Library. You may convey such object
code under terms of your choice, provided that, if the incorporated
material is not limited to numerical parameters, data structure
layouts and accessors, or small macros, inline functions and templates
(ten or fewer lines in length), you do both of the following:

a) Give prominent notice with each copy of the object code that the
Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are
covered by this License.

b) Accompany the object code with a copy of the GNU GPL and this license

4. Combined Works.

You may convey a Combined Work under terms of your choice that,
taken together, effectively do not restrict modification of the
portions of the Library contained in the Combined Work and reverse
engineering for debugging such modifications, if you also do each of
the following:

a) Give prominent notice with each copy of the Combined Work that
the Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are
covered by this License.

b) Accompany the Combined Work with a copy of the GNU GPL and this license

c) For a Combined Work that displays copyright notices during
execution, include the copyright notice for the Library among
these notices, as well as a reference directing the user to the
copies of the GNU GPL and this license document.

d) Do one of the following:

0) Convey the Minimal Corresponding Source under the terms of this
License, and the Corresponding Application Code in a form
suitable for, and under terms that permit, the user to
recombine or relink the Application with a modified version of
the Linked Version to produce a modified Combined Work, in the
manner specified by section 6 of the GNU GPL for conveying
Corresponding Source.

1) Use a suitable shared library mechanism for linking with the
Library. A suitable mechanism is one that (a) uses at run time
a copy of the Library already present on the user's computer
system, and (b) will operate properly with a modified version
of the Library that is interface-compatible with the Linked

e) Provide Installation Information, but only if you would otherwise
be required to provide such information under section 6 of the
GNU GPL, and only to the extent that such information is
necessary to install and execute a modified version of the
Combined Work produced by recombining or relinking the
Application with a modified version of the Linked Version. (If
you use option 4d0, the Installation Information must accompany
the Minimal Corresponding Source and Corresponding Application
Code. If you use option 4d1, you must provide the Installation
Information in the manner specified by section 6 of the GNU GPL
for conveying Corresponding Source.)

5. Combined Libraries.

You may place library facilities that are a work based on the
Library side by side in a single library together with other library
facilities that are not Applications and are not covered by this
License, and convey such a combined library under terms of your
choice, if you do both of the following:

a) Accompany the combined library with a copy of the same work based
on the Library, uncombined with any other library facilities,
conveyed under the terms of this License.

b) Give prominent notice with the combined library that part of it
is a work based on the Library, and explaining where to find the
accompanying uncombined form of the same work.

6. Revised Versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License.

The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the GNU Lesser General Public License from time to time. Such new
versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Library as you received it specifies that a certain numbered version
of the GNU Lesser General Public License "or any later version"
applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that published version or of any later version
published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Library as you
received it does not specify a version number of the GNU Lesser
General Public License, you may choose any version of the GNU Lesser
General Public License ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

If the Library as you received it specifies that a proxy can decide
whether future versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License shall
apply, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of any version is
permanent authorization for you to choose that version for the

Apache License:

Apache License, Version 2.0

Apache License
Version 2.0, January 2004


1. Definitions.

"License" shall mean the terms and conditions for use, reproduction, and distribution as defined by Sections 1 through 9 of this document.

"Licensor" shall mean the copyright owner or entity authorized by the copyright owner that is granting the License.

"Legal Entity" shall mean the union of the acting entity and all other entities that control, are controlled by, or are under common control with that entity. For the purposes of this definition, "control" means (i) the power, direct or indirect, to cause the direction or management of such entity, whether by contract or otherwise, or (ii) ownership of fifty percent (50%) or more of the outstanding shares, or (iii) beneficial ownership of such entity.

"You" (or "Your") shall mean an individual or Legal Entity exercising permissions granted by this License.

"Source" form shall mean the preferred form for making modifications, including but not limited to software source code, documentation source, and configuration files.

"Object" form shall mean any form resulting from mechanical transformation or translation of a Source form, including but not limited to compiled object code, generated documentation, and conversions to other media types.

"Work" shall mean the work of authorship, whether in Source or Object form, made available under the License, as indicated by a copyright notice that is included in or attached to the work (an example is provided in the Appendix below).

"Derivative Works" shall mean any work, whether in Source or Object form, that is based on (or derived from) the Work and for which the editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications represent, as a whole, an original work of authorship. For the purposes of this License, Derivative Works shall not include works that remain separable from, or merely link (or bind by name) to the interfaces of, the Work and Derivative Works thereof.

"Contribution" shall mean any work of authorship, including the original version of the Work and any modifications or additions to that Work or Derivative Works thereof, that is intentionally submitted to Licensor for inclusion in the Work by the copyright owner or by an individual or Legal Entity authorized to submit on behalf of the copyright owner. For the purposes of this definition, "submitted" means any form of electronic, verbal, or written communication sent to the Licensor or its representatives, including but not limited to communication on electronic mailing lists, source code control systems, and issue tracking systems that are managed by, or on behalf of, the Licensor for the purpose of discussing and improving the Work, but excluding communication that is conspicuously marked or otherwise designated in writing by the copyright owner as "Not a Contribution."

"Contributor" shall mean Licensor and any individual or Legal Entity on behalf of whom a Contribution has been received by Licensor and subsequently incorporated within the Work.

2. Grant of Copyright License. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, each Contributor hereby grants to You a perpetual, worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royalty-free, irrevocable copyright license to reproduce, prepare Derivative Works of, publicly display, publicly perform, sublicense, and distribute the Work and such Derivative Works in Source or Object form.

3. Grant of Patent License. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, each Contributor hereby grants to You a perpetual, worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royalty-free, irrevocable (except as stated in this section) patent license to make, have made, use, offer to sell, sell, import, and otherwise transfer the Work, where such license applies only to those patent claims licensable by such Contributor that are necessarily infringed by their Contribution(s) alone or by combination of their Contribution(s) with the Work to which such Contribution(s) was submitted. If You institute patent litigation against any entity (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that the Work or a Contribution incorporated within the Work constitutes direct or contributory patent infringement, then any patent licenses granted to You under this License for that Work shall terminate as of the date such litigation is filed.

4. Redistribution. You may reproduce and distribute copies of the Work or Derivative Works thereof in any medium, with or without modifications, and in Source or Object form, provided that You meet the following conditions:

1. You must give any other recipients of the Work or Derivative Works a copy of this License; and

2. You must cause any modified files to carry prominent notices stating that You changed the files; and

3. You must retain, in the Source form of any Derivative Works that You distribute, all copyright, patent, trademark, and attribution notices from the Source form of the Work, excluding those notices that do not pertain to any part of the Derivative Works; and

4. If the Work includes a "NOTICE" text file as part of its distribution, then any Derivative Works that You distribute must include a readable copy of the attribution notices contained within such NOTICE file, excluding those notices that do not pertain to any part of the Derivative Works, in at least one of the following places: within a NOTICE text file distributed as part of the Derivative Works; within the Source form or documentation, if provided along with the Derivative Works; or, within a display generated by the Derivative Works, if and wherever such third-party notices normally appear. The contents of the NOTICE file are for informational purposes only and do not modify the License. You may add Your own attribution notices within Derivative Works that You distribute, alongside or as an addendum to the NOTICE text from the Work, provided that such additional attribution notices cannot be construed as modifying the License.

You may add Your own copyright statement to Your modifications and may provide additional or different license terms and conditions for use, reproduction, or distribution of Your modifications, or for any such Derivative Works as a whole, provided Your use, reproduction, and distribution of the Work otherwise complies with the conditions stated in this License.

5. Submission of Contributions. Unless You explicitly state otherwise, any Contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the Work by You to the Licensor shall be under the terms and conditions of this License, without any additional terms or conditions. Notwithstanding the above, nothing herein shall supersede or modify the terms of any separate license agreement you may have executed with Licensor regarding such Contributions.

6. Trademarks. This License does not grant permission to use the trade names, trademarks, service marks, or product names of the Licensor, except as required for reasonable and customary use in describing the origin of the Work and reproducing the content of the NOTICE file.

7. Disclaimer of Warranty. Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, Licensor provides the Work (and each Contributor provides its Contributions) on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied, including, without limitation, any warranties or conditions of TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. You are solely responsible for determining the appropriateness of using or redistributing the Work and assume any risks associated with Your exercise of permissions under this License.

8. Limitation of Liability. In no event and under no legal theory, whether in tort (including negligence), contract, or otherwise, unless required by applicable law (such as deliberate and grossly negligent acts) or agreed to in writing, shall any Contributor be liable to You for damages, including any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any character arising as a result of this License or out of the use or inability to use the Work (including but not limited to damages for loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer failure or malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or losses), even if such Contributor has been advised of the possibility of such damages.

9. Accepting Warranty or Additional Liability. While redistributing the Work or Derivative Works thereof, You may choose to offer, and charge a fee for, acceptance of support, warranty, indemnity, or other liability obligations and/or rights consistent with this License. However, in accepting such obligations, You may act only on Your own behalf and on Your sole responsibility, not on behalf of any other Contributor, and only if You agree to indemnify, defend, and hold each Contributor harmless for any liability incurred by, or claims asserted against, such Contributor by reason of your accepting any such warranty or additional liability.

APPENDIX: How to apply the Apache License to your work

To apply the Apache License to your work, attach the following boilerplate notice, with the fields enclosed by brackets "[]" replaced with your own identifying information. (Don't include the brackets!) The text should be enclosed in the appropriate comment syntax for the file format. We also recommend that a file or class name and description of purpose be included on the same "printed page" as the copyright notice for easier identification within third-party archives.
Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner] Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.

Creative Commons License:

The below section is excerpted from Aditya's Blog .

Creative Commons provide an out of the box license which is not only flexible but also easy to use and much more easier than create. Yes, you can create a CC license, specially customized to suit your needs like the one I have for this blog. You can create a license for your work here. CC license is not generally used for software licensing. It is more suited for literature or documentation work. In this license type you can choose the condition you want to set for your work. These conditions are :-

1. Attribution : You let others to copy and use your work only if they give you the credit the way you want.
2. Share Alike : You can allow other users to share your work but keeping the same or similsr license like the original one.
3. Noncommercial : You can permit others to use your work for Noncommercial/Commercial purposes
4. No Derivative Works : You give others permission to copy and distribute your work. But only Verbatim copies not any sort of derived work.

Just glean over this url CC-url

Moreover if you really want know more about it then please visit GNU website for the infomation regarding license.

Hope this will help.